MINNEAPOLIS – After 11 days, 38 witnesses and dozens of movie clips revealing the minutes before and after George Floyd expired under the knee of Derek Chauvin, the prosecution in the murder trial of the former police officer rested its case Tuesday.

Chauvin is charged with second-degree murder, third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter in Floyd’s death on May 25, 2020.

The prosecution, led by the Minnesota Attorney General’s office, also known as the stand eyewitnesses, Minneapolis police officers and paramedics, law enforcement specialists and a range of medical experts in an effort to prove Floyd died because Chauvin pressed his knee to Chauvin’s neck for over nine minutes.

A bystander video was anticipated to be a key piece of evidence, but it was merely one of several presented by prosecutors in an attempt to make jurors feel as if they were there when Floyd died on the street.

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Some of the videos were shaky and close-up, with the sounds of Floyd gasping for air and the crowd yelling at Chauvin and three other officers. Others were silent, recorded from high above the intersection or neighboring businesses. One revealed Floyd as he stood in Cup Foods, waiting to get cigarettes with a $20 bill a store clerk testified seemed fake.

A key moment in the prosecution’s case came when an expert on the physiology of breathing walked jurors through his judgment that Floyd had been slowly suffocated. Dr. Martin Tobin said  the way Floyd was restrained — handcuffed behind his back, face-down on the floor, with a knee on his neck — prevented him from breathing properly.

The impact of the officers’ activities and Floyd’s positionwas almost “asif a surgeon had gone and removed the ( left ) lungs, ” Tobin said, as jurors turned toward him and took notes on the testimony. The jurors are spaced out in the court, sitting at separate desks.

The defense, meanwhile, has argued Floyd died from underlying medical conditions as well as the medication in his system.Floyd’s high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, and ingestion of methamphetamine and fentanyl, along with the struggle with police, led his heart to stop, the defense argued.  

Prosecutors attempted toheads off those arguments byasking witnesses to testify about Floyd’s inherent health issues and his battle with opioids.

Derek Chauvin has been in court for weeks now, beginning with jury selection last month. Wearing a face mask and a suit, he’s sat up directly  and has appeared to take notes on a yellow legal pad during testimony.

Live coverage of Chauvin trial:Prosecution rests its case after 11 days; defense calls witnesses

Eyewitnesses described watching Floyd expire : ‘ Totally distressed’ and ‘helpless’

The prosecution opened its case by calling bystanders who became psychological  as they recounted their efforts to intervene in Floyd’s death. One of them: the teenager who recorded a movie shared worldwide on social media, her 9-year-old cousin, and an off-duty Minneapolis firefighter who pleaded with officers to allow her to administer first aid to Floyd.

Floyd’s girlfriend, Courteney Ross, gave jurors intimate glimpses of Floyd’s lifetime  – how they first met and where they first kissed.

Several of the witnesses said that they live with the guilt of not having done more to save Floyd.

Firefighter Genevieve Hansen, 27, broke down in tears on the stand as she testified about being prevented from helping Floyd. Trained as an EMT, Hansen was on a walk when she came upon the officers restraining  Floyd on the floor. She can be heard on video begging officers to test Floyd’s pulse. In court, she described feeling “totally distressed” and “helpless” that the authorities wouldn’t let her supply medical attention.

Darnella Frazier, 18, who listed the viral video , told prosecutor Jerry Blackwell that when she looked at Floyd, she saw her Black relatives and friends.

“When I look at George Floyd, I look at my dad, I look at my brother’s, I look at my cousins, my uncles, ” Frazier said. She said she has remained up some nights “apologizing and apologizing to George Floyd for not doing more and not physically interacting rather than saving his life. “

However, she said, “it’s not exactly what I should have done. It’s what he (Chauvin) should have done. “

Minneapolis police officers, national experts said Chauvin’s actions were out of line

Prosecutors aimed to show that Floyd broke Minneapolis Police Department policy and nationally accepted policing standards.

They argued Chauvin violated policies to de-escalate the situation and adjust how much force he was using based on Floyd’s behavior. They presented evidence that Chauvin’s use of force violated the law by not abiding guidelines laid out from the U.S. Supreme Court.  

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Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo said Chauvin’s restraint “absolutely” violated department policy and proceeded against “our ethics and our values. ” Lt. Richard Zimmerman, head of this section ‘s homicide unit,  stated Chauvin’s use of force has been “totally unnecessary” and “uncalled for. “

Lt. Johnny Mercil, a use-of-force expert who taught a use of force training course Chauvin attended, said the department didn’t train officers to use the knee-on-neck restraint.

Defense asserts Floyd, crowd posed a threat to officers

On cross examination, lead defense lawyer Eric Nelson solicited testimony from state witnesses to suggest officers were threatened and diverted by an angry mob of bystanders, which he argued made it too difficult for officers to render medical aid or de-escalate the situation any more than the officers did when they chose not to use a hobble restraint on Floyd.

Nelson asked a few of the bystanders if they had been “upset” by what they saw that day, at times quoting vulgarities heard in the videos and pacing in the court to make his point. On cross-examination of the paramedics, Nelson highlighted their decision to move Floyd away from the scene, away from the crowd, before they tried to revive him.

Nelson also asked witnesses if it’s potential   somebody that has been rendered unconscious could possibly reawaken and become combative, an  try to show Floyd continued to be a danger to officers after he was handcuffed and unconscious on the ground. Several witnesses agreed that could happen.

Nelson also used a brief clip of bystander and body-cam videos, played side-by-side, to assert Chauvin’s knee wasn’t Floyd’s neck, but rather on his shoulder blade – an argument he’ll likely expand on in the coming days.

Prosecution says Chauvin betrayed ‘duty of care’

The prosecution contended Chauvin not only used excessive force – but that he also failed to execute his obligation to provide basic care when Floyd was in medical distress and became unresponsive.

After another officer told Chauvin that Floyd had no pulse, Chauvin continued to kneel on Floyd for 2 ½ minutes instead of trying CPR or chest compressions to revive him, witnesses testified.

Two Minneapolis police personnel, including the EMT who directs the department’s emergency medical response training, told jurors who officers are trained to call for an ambulance and supply medical aid in life-threatening situations.

“If its a critical situation, you have to do both” call for an ambulance and provide first aid such as CPR, said Minneapolis police officer Nicole Mackenzie, who conducts first aid education for officers.

Derek Smith, a paramedic with Hennepin County EMS who responded to the scene that day, told jurors he thoughts Floyd was dead when he arrived. “I told my spouse, I think he ‘s dead, and I wish to move this from this, ” Smith said.

The emergency room  physician  who strove to resuscitate Floyd at Hennepin County Medical Center told jurors Floyd died from reduced oxygen – not a heart attack or overdose.

A number of medical experts testified that, based on a review of records and videos, they believed Floyd died of asphyxia, or low oxygen, because of how he was restrained by officers.  Dr. Martin Tobin, the expert on the physiology of breathing, explained why he believed the officers’ actions slowly suffocated Floyd.

“It’s like the left side is in a vise. It’s totally pushed in, squeezed in from the street at the bottom, then from how the handcuffs are manipulated, ” Tobin said. “That completely interferes with central features of how we breathe. “

He said, “A healthy person subjected to what Mr. Floyd was subjected to would have died as a result. “

Medical examiner testified health conditions, drugs contributed to Floyd’s death

Nelson turned state’s witness Hennepin County medical examiner Dr. Andrew Baker into a vital defense witness. On Friday, Baker emphasized that the direct cause of death from his autopsy of Floydremained unchanged: Floyd died from “cardiopulmonary arrest” as a result of him being subdued, controlled and having his throat compacted by law enforcement.

Nelson highlighted Baker’s view that Floyd’s heart disease, history of hypertension and the medication in his system ” contributed ” to his death, evidenced by a heart that “weighed more than it should ” and coronary artery that were significantly narrowed, according to Baker.

“It was the stress of the interaction which tipped him over the border, given his underlying heart disease and its toxicology status, ” Baker said.

He told jurors that if Floyd had been found dead in his locked residence with no signs of trauma, he’d ‘ve concluded Floyd died of an overdose.

The prosecution seemed to anticipate the difficulty of Baker’s testimony.  They called to the stand former county forensic pathologist Dr. Lindsey Thomas  before  Baker.

Thomas said she has ran roughly 5,000 autopsies within her career and helped train Baker. She went farther than Baker did, telling jurors she believed the real “mechanism” that induced Floyd to stop breathing and his heart to stop beating was reduced oxygen, or asphyxia.

She said there no signs Floyd would have died that last May when he had not interacted with the officers.

Family member closes testimony

The prosecution’s case ended much like it started : with tears.

Philonise Floyd, 39, told jurors stories about growing up with his “big brother” as prosecutors showed jurors  photographs of George shot throughout his lifetime : a baby nestled on his mother’s torso, a  teen leaning over a textbook, a basketball player on the South Florida Community College basketball team, and a  father holding his daughter up.

The younger brother choked up seeing the picture of George nicknamed “Perry” after his father and his mother. “I miss both of them, ” he said.

Philonise Floyd testified as a “spark of life” witness to give jurors a much better awareness of who George was.  A Minnesota Supreme Court ruling allows prosecutors to humanize deceased subjects.

Philonise Floyd said his brother “was so much a leader to us in the household. ” He was born in Fayetteville, North Carolina, and the family moved to Houston when they were young. The brothers have two older sisters. George Floyd was born after them, then Philonise and Rodney.

” He’d always make sure we had our clothes for school. He made sure we all were going to be to school on time, ” Philonise Floyd said. George couldn’t cook — he “couldn’t boil water” — but, Philonise Floyd stated, he made “the best banana mayonnaise sandwiches. “

The defense began calling witnesses Tuesday.  The judge said he anticipated closing arguments to occur Monday.

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